Aging is not as static as it once seem. Clearly, we now know that several conserv molecular changes occur in organisms with age and we have develop interventions in animal models to impact almost all of them. Nevertheless, despite our great push for testing life- and healthspan altering molecules and growing knowlge of the underlying causes of aging, we still do not know if most of our interventions will work in humans. Why is that? Biomarkers A major problem facing the field of aging is measuring the effect of an intervention. In short liv organisms such as fruit flies, nematodes, and yeast.
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Effects are easy to measure simply by investigating how an intervention impacts the lifespan. However, with longer liv organisms this comes challenging and surrogate markers are therefore ne that reflect biological aging. Some physiological markers, such as grip strength and walking spe, appear to decline with age and prict mortality (Studenski et al., 2011; Ling et al., 2012), however, there is considerable variability in these physiological parameters and their ability to singly Italy Email Database reflect biological aging may limit. Ten years ago, the identification of single biomarkers of aging was a grand challenge when considering trials for aging in humans, however, landmark papers from Hannum et al. (2013) and Horvath (2013) have shown that we can quite accurately measure age by looking at the combin alterations in the epigenetic landscape.
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In hind sight, it is perhaps not surprising that complex biomarkers are ne for measuring an effect in a highly complex biological system such as aging. In particular, with the rise of massive laboratory generat datasets and machine learning, a wealth of biomarkers bas on proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, microbiomic, photographic, and hematological data, have en develop that can us to measure efficacy of trials (Rist et al., 2017; Bobrov et al., 2018; Ferrucci and Tanaka, 2018; Fleischer et al., 2018; Galkin et al., 2018; Mamoshina et al., 2018). Notably, most of these biomarkers, or aging clocks, not only prict the age of an TH Lists individual but also the risk of death.